INTER PARES

INTER PARES courses

INTER PARES | Parliaments in Partnership is the EU’s Global Programme to Strengthen the Capacity of Parliaments. INTER PARES will complement its in-person peer-to-peer exchange activities with online learning opportunities, hosted on the AGORA Portal.

The INTER PARES e-learning package will comprise six core courses (oversight; legislative drafting; comparative law-making; representation; budgeting and committee work) as well as a set of specialised courses, including gender and environmental protection and climate change.

At the end of this course, learners should have developed:

  • Understanding of the key societal changes that have affected representation in recent decades;
  • Understanding of the key role played by modern parliaments in representation;
  • Knowledge and understanding of the five core processes of representation;
  • Ability to identify and critically evaluate examples of best practice in representation; and
  • Ability to critically reflect on their own practices of representation.

This course was written by Professor Cristina Leston-Bandeira, University of Leeds.

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At the end of this course, you will better understand: 

  1. Why we practice parliamentary oversight (theory) 

  2. What parliamentary oversight is and is not (the tools) 

  3. How parliamentary oversight is carried out (the practice) 

  4. The implications of parliamentary oversight (the politics) 

Throughout, you will be able to explore a wide range of case studies from across Europe and beyond.  


This course was written by Associate Professor Dr. Olivier Rozenberg, Sciences Po.


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At the end of this course, you will better understand: 

  1. Why parliaments engage on climate change
  2. The (international) legal framework
  3. Parliamentary action on climate change
  4. Climate budgeting and climate finance
  5. Parliamentary practice on climate change

Throughout, you will be able to explore a wide range of case studies from across Europe and beyond.  

The course consists of 5 modules. Please click on the "Launch the learning module" in order to start the course

This course was written by former MP (New Zealand) Dr. Kennedy Graham.


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Legislation constitutes the product of a lengthy process, beginning from a policy concept and ending with the realisation of the desired regulatory results

The legislative drafting process is part of the legislative (law-making) process, which in turn is part of the policy (governance) process.

The course consists of 8 modules. Please click on the "Launch the learning module" in order to start the course

This course was written by Professor Helen Xanthaki, University College London, with the support of Dr. Maria Mousmouti and Dr. Constantin Stefanou.


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This course analyses procedures and practices of law-making in contemporary democracies.

  • The first part places law-making among other parliamentary functions, underlining the close interrelationship and intertwining between the main features of the law-making process and the form of government.
  • The second part is devoted to parliamentary procedures for law-making and is divided into two sections: (a1) a historical approach, exploring the main models adopted in the UK, France and US (respectively, the tThree rReadings in the UK; the “‘Bureaux System”’ in France; and the Permanent Specialized Committees in the US), and (b2) a section focusing on a key driver of the transformation of law-making procedures: the growing complexity of legislation (‘complexification’), a key factor that is transforming contemporary law-making procedures.
  • The third and final part explores specific law-making practices through a comparative study of different jurisdictions.

This course was written by Professor Nicola Lupo, Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali.

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