INTER PARES | Parliaments in Partnership is the EU’s Global Programme to Strengthen the Capacity of Parliaments. INTER PARES will complement its in-person peer-to-peer exchange activities with online learning opportunities, hosted on the AGORA Portal.

The INTER PARES e-learning package will comprise five core courses (oversight; legislative drafting; comparative law-making; representation; and budgeting) as well as a set of specialised courses developed on demand, including environmental protection and climate change. These courses are exclusively available to INTER PARES stakeholders, who will be certified upon completion.

This course analyses procedures and practices of law-making in contemporary democracies.

  • The first part places law-making among other parliamentary functions, underlining the close interrelationship and intertwining between the main features of the law-making process and the form of government.
  • The second part is devoted to parliamentary procedures for law-making and is divided into two sections: (a1) a historical approach, exploring the main models adopted in the UK, France and US (respectively, the tThree rReadings in the UK; the “‘Bureaux System”’ in France; and the Permanent Specialized Committees in the US), and (b2) a section focusing on a key driver of the transformation of law-making procedures: the growing complexity of legislation (‘complexification’), a key factor that is transforming contemporary law-making procedures.
  • The third and final part explores specific law-making practices through a comparative study of different jurisdictions.

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At the end of this course, you will better understand: 

  1. Why we practice parliamentary oversight (theory) 

  2. What parliamentary oversight is and is not (the tools) 

  3. How parliamentary oversight is carried out (the practice) 

  4. The implications of parliamentary oversight (the politics) 

Throughout, you will be able to explore a wide range of case studies from across Europe and beyond.  

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Legislation constitutes the product of a lengthy process, beginning from a policy concept and ending with the realisation of the desired regulatory results

The legislative drafting process is part of the legislative (law-making) process, which in turn is part of the policy (governance) process.

The course consists of 8 modules. Please click on the "Launch the learning module" in order to start the course

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